Background and aims Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a complex neurodevelopmental-neurobiological disorder of behaviour, which is characterised by increased hyperactivity levels. Also, many of the children diagnosed with ADHD have significant nutritional problems. The aim of the study was to investigate the correlation of the hyperactivity status of these children with major nutritional changes using gluten free diet.
Methods A total number of 48 children aged 4.5 to 10 years were enrolled. All of them were diagnosed with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder. Also, all children were tested for IgA deficiency, EMA and anti-tTg autoantibodies, and 3 children with abnormal tests were excluded. The 45 remaining children group was randomly divided in two subgroups: 22 of the children started gluten free diet (group A) and the rest 23 children continued their previous diet (group B). Hyperactivity status was measured using properly arranged questionnaire model and special scoring system for the therapist and the parents. Statistical analysis was performed using the statistical program SPSS/19 and x2-test.
Results After 6 months of intervention, statistical significant difference (p < 0.001) was found in hyperactivity status between groups A and B, which was maintained also after 12 months.
Conclusions Children suffering from attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder have increased hyperactivity status, but it seems that gluten free diet has much to offer in order to lower hyperactivity levels.