Background and aims There is increasing evidence that vitamin D deficiency plays an important role in susceptibility to infections. We aimed to examine whether there is any association between serum levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D3) and urinary tract infections (UTI) among children.
Methods Serum calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), parathormone (PTH) and serum 25(OH)D3 levels were measured in 82 children aged 2 months to 12 years with first episode of UTI, not having any risk factor for UTI, and 64 healthy control children. The age, gender, weight, height, fever, vitamin D or calcium supplementation, urinalysis and urine culture were recorded.
Results The serum levels of 25(OH)D3 were significantly lower in the study group compared to healthy control group (11.69 ± 3.25 ng/mL vs. 27.57 ± 4.72 ng/mL; p < 0.001). There was statistically significant difference in serum 25(OH)D3 levels between the patients with upper UTI compared to the patients with lower UTI (8.63 ± 2.76 ng/mL vs. 14.22 ± 2.97 ng/mL; p < 0.001). The serum levels of 25(OH)D3 were significantly lower in girls compared to the boys in the study group (10.91 ± 3.42 ng/mL vs. 13.20 ± 4.38 ng/mL; p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that a serum 25(OH)D3 level of < 15 ng/mL (odds ratio 3.50, 95% confidence interval 1.62–7.57; p = 0.001) was associated with UTI in children.