Background and aims Vitamin D seems to play an important role in the pathogenesis of respiratory system diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible association between both maternal and neonatal25-hydroxyvitamin-D (25-OHD) levels and the subsequent risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD)development in preterm infants.
Methods Premature infants ≤32 gestational age and admitted to Neonatal Intensive Care Unit with a diagnosis of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) between December 2012 and December2013 were included to this prospective study. Blood for neonatal and maternal vitamin D levels were obtained from all infants and their mothers at the time of hospital admission. The maternal and neonatal demographic features, maternal vitamin D usage, maternal head cover status, birth season and neonatal morbidities and mortality were all recorded.
Results A total of100 preterm infants were included and 31 of them developed BPD. The mean birthweight, gestational age, duration of ventilation and duration of oxygen supplementation were significantly higher in infants with BPD compared with those who did not develop BPD (p < 0.05). Both maternal (19 ± 2.2 vs 28.7 ± 7.6) and neonatal (7.1 ± 1.6 vs 14.8 ± 4.7) 25-OHD levels were significantly lower infants with BPD (both p > 0.05). All of the infants with BPD had a 25-OHD level <10ng/ml that represented severe vitamin D deficiency (p < 0.05).
Conclusions This study suggested for the first time that maternal/neonatal vitaminD deficiency might be associated with increased risk of BPD in preterm infants.