Background and aims General anaesthetics may produce neurotoxicity and enduring cognitive impairment in animal models, but the issue has not been adequately studied in humans. We want to demonstrate the association of poor neurodevelopmental outcome in preterm neonates who underwent anaesthesia during their neonatal period.
Methods Total of 120 infants in infants born very preterm (≤ 32 weeks) with very low birthweight (< 1500 g) were enrolled in a retros-pective randomised controlled trial classed into two groups. Group 1 (n = 60) underwent general anaesthesia for any surgical state on follow-up and group 2 (n = 60) was no given anaesthesia. Both of groups were compared in terms of clinical demographic data. Cognitive and neu-romotor development were assessed by using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II.
Results No statistical difference between demographic data. The mental developmental index (MDI) and physical developmental in-dex scores were 76.73 ± 23.88; 76.26 ± 20.22 in group 1 and 96.6 ± 12.87; 89.1 ± 16.75 in group 2, respectively. There was significant difference in growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes between the two groups (MDI: p = 0.001; PDI: p = 0.01). There was no in-dependent risk factor, which can affect none of the MDI and PDI scores in the multinomial logistic regression analysis.
Conclusion One of the most important problem of prematurity is poor neurodevelopmental outcome. Sedatives and anaesthetics which widely used in animal studies, showed widespread structural damage after exposure to the newborn period and lasting neuro-cognitive abnormalities in brain development. Anaesthetics exposure in preterm infants among surgery is an independent increased risk factor for poor neurodevelopment.