Introduction A higher prevalence of all congenital malformations in children conceived through assisted reproductive technologies (ART) was fairly extensively suggested in literature. However, there are few studies which only address congenital heart disease (CHD) specifically and most have examined data from registers. The aim of this study was determined the prevalence of CHD in fetus and newborn conceived by ART and comparison with newborn in outpatient obstetric clinics. All data was collected in a specialist paediatric service in the Taichung Taiwan.
Methods This study was detected fetus and newborns with CHD. All pregnancies treated by ART who received fetal echocardiography between gestational age from 20 to 24 weeks and examine done month after delivery or reported by echocardiographic screening from their birth hospital. The controlled group was normal conceived newborn receiving postnatal echocardiographic screening at age of one week at the same area in Taichung city.
Results Among 2,780 fetus in ART, the prevalence of major CHD with immediate life-threatening risk and overall CHD were 503.5/100,000 (n = 14) and 1,223/100,000 (n = 34), respectively. In comparison with control group of 12,022 newborn, the major CHD was 2 times of normal pregnancy but all CHD were only one half of normal pregnancy. In assisted conception were observed increased in a number of individual subgroups rates, the highest among those with pulmonary atresia.
Conclusions We found no increased risk of overall CHD but more risky in major CHD in those conceived by ARTs. Further analysis of individual subgroups of CHD and different methods of conception is required. Prenatal echocardiographic screening can play a useful tool for early detection of major CHD in ART to improve the outcome of CHD.