Background Adiponectin gene (ADIPOQ) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been shown to influence adiponectin levels and have been associated with risk for obesity and insulin resistance (IR). However, these associations have not been fully examined in Egyptian adolescents. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of ADIPOQ gene 45T > G with risk of obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS) in Egyptian female adolescents.
Methods The cross-sectional study was performed on 285 Egyptian female adolescents (mean age: 15.5 ± 2.3 and mean body mass index: 20.34 ± 5.67). Genotyping of adiponectin 45T > G polymorphism was detected by PCR-RFLP analysis. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters were measured by standard procedures. Insulin resistance was determined by the Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR). Body fat was measured by Tanita Body Composition Analyzer.
Results MS cases showed a higher distribution of TG and GG genotypes compared with cases without MS. Carriers of the mutated genotypes (TG+GG) exhibited higher levels of body mass index, body fat percentage, blood pressure, fasting insulin, fasting glucose, HOMA-IR, triglyceride, whereas lower levels of HDL-C and serum concentrations of adiponectin as compared with TT carriers. Association between MS and mutated genotypes of ADIPOQ gene 45T > G was observed (adjusted odds ratios (OR) = 3.65 for TG+GG carriers, OR = 2.25 for GG carriers and OR = 1.9 for G allele carriers).
Conclusions The study suggests that adiponectin 45T > G polymorphism has a significant role in the development of MS in Egyptian female adolescents, possibly through an interaction with increase body weight and hypoadiponectinemia.