Prevalence of scoliosis in patients with Fontan circulation
- Muayad Kadhim1,
- Christian Pizarro2,
- Larry Holmes Jr1,
- Kenneth J Rogers1,
- Antony Kallur1,
- William G Mackenzie1
- 1Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Nemours/Alfred I duPont Hospital for Children, Wilmington, Delaware, USA
- 2Department of Cardiac Surgery, Nemours/Alfred I duPont Hospital for Children, Wilmington, Delaware, USA
- Correspondence to Dr William G Mackenzie, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Nemours/Alfred I duPont Hospital for Children, 1600 Rockland Road, Wilmington, DE 19803, USA;
- Received 8 May 2012
- Accepted 28 November 2012
- Final version accepted 28 November 2012
- Published Online First 21 December 2012
Objective To examine the prevalence of scoliosis in patients with Fontan circulation.
Design Retrospective cohort (case-only), level IV study.
Setting A comprehensive paediatric centre.
Methods We examined the radiographs of 194 patients who underwent Fontan completion surgery between 1998 and 2011 at a median age of 1.3 years.
Main outcome measure We collected data on the age at the last available radiograph and when scoliosis was diagnosed; we used the first available radiograph with scoliosis. We also measured the magnitude and direction of the spinal curve in patients with scoliosis.
Results Median age at radiography was 3.4 years. Nineteen patients (9.8%) developed scoliosis; none of them underwent thoracotomy. Most of the patients with scoliosis were older than 5 years of age at scoliosis diagnosis and the female to male ratio was 5 : 3. The major curve was right thoracic in 12 patients (63.2%), left thoracic in four patients (21.1%) and high thoracic in three patients (15.8%). For every 1 year increase in age there was a 27% increased risk of developing scoliosis.
Conclusions There was a high prevalence of scoliosis in patients with Fontan circulation. We recommend interdisciplinary monitoring of these patients to diagnose spinal curve deformities in a timely manner.