Background and Aims Peripheral intravenous catheterization is the most common invasive procedure among paediatric inpatients. Infiltration and extravasation are common complications, causing pain, discomfort, infection, nerve damage, and tissue necrosis. In an effort to reduce our rates, we designed a prospective intervention study.
Methods This was a prospective study performed in the Pediatric department of King Fahad Armed Forces Hospital. We recorded the infiltrations from Jan to June 2010, followed by the intervention during July and August 2010, in the form of in-services and laminated posters emphasizing site of catheterization, use of transparent tape and hourly cannula site inspection. The rates of infiltrations were then recorded from September 2010 - October 2011. Patients with any form of vasculitis, thrombotic or bleeding tendency were excluded. Descriptive data was recorded and rates were compared between pre- and post-intervention. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 17.0.
Results A total of 384 infiltrations were recorded. The average monthly rate pre-intervention was 26.8 and post-intervention was 20.7 with a p-value of 0.04 (statistically significant). Although a reduction was seen post-intervention, there was a rebound in infiltrations starting Nov 2010 to Feb 2011, which was recognized at the time, attributed to a high turnover of nurses and higher rates of admissions. We repeated a series of in-services with a subsequent reduction in infiltration rate.
Conclusions The overall pattern shows a statistically significant reduction in infiltration rate after the intervention. However, continuous surveillance and reinforcement of interventions is mandatory to sustain improved rates.