Purpose To study cases of the diagnosis of main abdominal malignancies in infants in the neonatal period and to review the effectiveness of ultrasound for these pathology from the fetus.
Patients and Methods A retrospective analysis of clinical and anamnestic data of the first month of life of children with retroperitoneal neuroblastoma, hepatoblastoma, renal tumors, who were treated in a two Belarusian cancer centers for the period from 1995 to 2011 were made. In the study group were included 16 neonates: 9 - with neuroblastoma, 3 - with hepatoblastoma, 4 - with mesoblastic nephroma.
Results It is established that the primary method of prenatal and postnatal diagnosis of the main forms of malignant abdominal tumors in all cases were the ultrasound diagnostic study. No there were neonates with nephroblastoma in this study. The highest diagnostic efficacy of ultrasound in the perinatal period has been observed in cases of mesoblastic nephroma. Half of them were diagnosed prenatally. Value for prenatal and postnatal diagnosis for neuroblastoma was 1:8. Prenatal detection of hepatoblastoma in the observed cohort of infants was ineffective. Postnatal volume this tumor was 150–282 ml. This are were definitely a congenital tumor.
Conclusions Ultrasonography is a method of choice for initial imaging of the tumors in the neonatal period. Obviously, there are diagnostic reserves for increased efficiency of prenatal detection of malignant and potentially malignant abdominal tumors. The results can be useful when planning screening programs for children in the first year of life.