Background and Aim Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is the glucose intolerance detected during pregnancy. The most common neonatal complication of these mothers is macrosomic or large for gestational age (LGA) babies. We evaluated the pre-pregnancy body mass index (PP-BMI) and the effects of glycemic control on the frequency of neonatal complications and macrosomia in GDM pregnancies.
Methods 87 GDM pregnancies were retrospectively enrolled in the study and divided into two groups: Group I, PP-BMI<25.0 kg/m2 (normal, n=29), and Group II, PP-BMI≥25 kg/m2 (overweight, n=58). Carpenter-Couston criterias modified from Workshop-Conference on Gestational Diabetes were used for GDM diagnosis. Infants born from these mothers were also divided as appropriate for gestational age (AGA) and LGA.
Results There were no differences with respect to age, gestational age at admission, mean HbA1c levels, mode of delivery and perinatal mortality between groups. On the other hand, number of LGA infants were significantly higher in Group II [n=1 (3.4%) vs n=13 (22.4%); p=0.02]. There were no difference about neonatal complications between groups including; hypoglysemia, sepsis, polycythemia, respiratory distress and hospitalization during neonatal period.
Conclusion Good glysemic control in GDM patients was not seem to be enough in reducing the LGA babies. Overweight paients should be treated before pregnancy, and during pregnancy good glycemic control must be assured so that LGA babies and neonatal complications can be decreased.