Background Further to investigate whether increased S100 levels in serum are correlated with the grade of HIE after perinatal asphyxia, mechanical ventilation in some severe cases of the asphyxiated infants and more specifically whether increased S100 predicts the cerebral injury and subsequent cerebral palsy.
Methods All risk neonates with severe asphyxia, within 24h of injury were included. Serum S100 was measured on postnatal days 1–3–7 in 62 term infants with birth asphyxia. S100B levels were measured using ECLIA method.
Results The avarage serum S100B levels for the control group(N=48) was 0.12 microgL(–1) (cut-off point). S100B levels were significantly higher in asphyxiated term neonates N=29; M= 0.64. Infants with moderate and severe HIE had significantly higher S100 levels on postnatal day 1 (p = 0.031) and day 2 (p = 0.008) than infants with mild or no HIE. The levels of S100 decreased on days 2 and 3 in all infants with HIE. The median S100 level on postnatal day 1 was higher in nine infants who died neonatally and in 10 infants who developed cerebral palsy (CP), compared with 43 infants with no signs of impairment at follow up, 14.0 µg/L, 20.7µg/L and 5.5µg/L, respectively. A level of S100 above 12 µg/L the first day of life was significantly more frequent in infants who died or developed CP than in infants with no impairment at follow up (p = 0.02).
Conclusion Early determination of serum S100 may reflect the extent of brain damage in infants with HIE after asphyxia.