Aim and methods: To assess the frequency of ARI in preschool children population, identification of risk factors and main principles of treatment. The cross sectional study was conducted using the special questionnaires for parents of 3–6 years children and in all regions of Georgia. At all 1448 parents and caregivers were interviewed.
Results 2.3% of children have 7–8 episodes of ARI per year, 19.9% have 3–5, 53.4% 1–2 episodes per year and in 24.2% ARI are very rare. The incidence of ARI is higher in urban population, then in rural area and in mountain regions (p<0, 001). The main symptoms for admission to health care facilities were cough (82, 8%) and fever (75, 9%). Study revealed the risk factors for ARI: male sex, living in urban area, attendance of day care centers, exposure to passive smocking, big number of family members significantly increase risk of ARI. There was no correlation between the type of feeding in infancy and frequency of ARI infection in 3–6 years old children. In 47% of ARI cases antibiotics were used from those in 32 # parents started antibiotics by self.
Conclusion Male sexes, urban regions, attendance of day care center, passive smoking are the significant risk factors for development of ARI in children aged 3–6 years. Primary health care providers still prescribe unnecessary and excessive antibiotics. The incidence of ARI may be reduced substantially through public health measures.