Background and Aims Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common viral cause of congenital infection. Preexisting maternal immunity strongly reduce CMV transmission. To characterize newborn findings and long-term outcome in infants born to mothers with non-primary CMV infection.
Methods Prospective study of infants with congenital CMV infection born between 2005 and 2010. Clinical and neuroimaging findings at birth were recorded. Infants were enrolled in a long-term follow-up program including clinical, ophthalmological, audiological and neurodevelopmental examinations.
Results Of the 37 infants with congenital CMV infection identified during the study period, 31/37(84%) were born to mothers with primary CMV infections and 6/37(16%) were born to mothers with confirmed non-primary CMV infections in pregnancy. Three of 6 infants born to mothers with preexisting immunity had symptoms/signs at birth: microcephaly (3), petechiae (2), thrombocytopenia (2), hepatosplenomegaly (2), jaundice (1), chorioretinitis (1). These infants showed abnormal auditory brainstem evoked response at first evaluation and abnormal neuroimaging findings. At follow-up 2/3 infants developed severe neurological sequelae (cerebral palsy and epilepsy in 1 case), and 1/3 showed delayed psychomotor development requiring rehabilitation; 3/3 infants had bilateral sensorineural hearing loss. Symptomatic infants were treated with antiviral drugs. The remaining 3/6 infants were asymptomatic at birth and showed a good long-term neurologic outcome.
Conclusions Clinical findings and long-term outcome in infants born to mothers with preexisting CMV immunity are widely variable and may be severe. The presence of symptoms/signs consistent with CMV congenital infection should be closely evaluated even in infants born to mothers with CMV-IgG positivity prior to conception.
Statistics from Altmetric.com
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.