Background and Aims Pneumonia ranks second in the table of infant mortality in children under 5 years. The incidence of pneumonia is 5–10 times greater in developing countries. This study aimed to identify cases of pneumonia admitted to the Pediatrics Ward of the Hospital Alcides Carneiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from February to December 2008, which evolved satisfactorily using crystalline penicillin as monotherapy.
Methods Documentary analysis of the children diagnosed with pneumonia. The informed consent and informed about the objectives and procedures of the study was obtained from their legal guardians. Variables: age, sex, diagnosis, length of hospitalization, medication use, hospitalizations and outpatient medical care routine. We excluded children aged less than 61 days and those with chronic diseases.
Results Of 946 children admitted, 147 were diagnosed with pneumonia, outlining our study group. Ages ranged from 3 months to 13 years. Males predominated in 58%. The length of stay ranged from 2 to 38 days. Previous hospitalization occurred in 63 patients, respiratory causes prevalent in 80.55%. The irregular medical monitoring was present in 26 patients (17.69%) and of these, nine (34.6%) are belonging to the group who had had previous admissions.
Conclusion Of all children admitted, 115 (78.23%) started treatment with recommended Crystalline Penicillin, and only 10 (8.7%) required another antibiotic regimen, demonstrating the effective use of penicillin as a treatment of choice.