Background and Aims The Bronchiolitis is the most common cause of hospitalization among infants under 6 months in developed countries and less than 1 year in developing countries. Respiratory syncytial virus is the main etiologic agent responsible for 60–80% of cases during the months of autumn and winter. The objective of this study was to describe the incidence of bronchiolitis in our country compared with the international literature.
Methods A transversal descriptive study of patients admitted to the pediatric ward of the Teaching Hospital Alcides Carneiro - Petrópolis - RJ in the period June 2006 to June 2010 with clinical and radiological diagnosis of bronchiolitis. Excluding cases associated with underlying disease. We studied seasonal distribution, gender, age distribution, the most prevalent complications and hospital stay.
Results The bronchiolitis accounted for 5% of total admissions during the study period. Of these, 63% were male and mean age of 5.4 months in hospital stay of 7.5 days. Complications occurred in 48% of cases: pneumonia, atelectasis, 78.4% and 3.2%. For fall-winter seasonality in 74% and 22.3% incidence in the month of May.
Conclusions This study demonstrates the seasonal nature and prevalence of males, age range and prevalence of pneumonia as the most frequent complication. The percentage of hospitalizations in this study in relation to the total number of hospitalizations is referenced by the above literature.