Vitamin D insufficiency has been linked with susceptibility to infection, autoimmune diseases and cancers.
Objective To study the effect of vitamin D supplementation on the immunity and the risk of infections during the first year of life in full term infants.
Methods This is a prospective case control study included 99 full term infants attending Minia university hospital during the period from January 2010 to February 2012. They were divided into two groups: group I included forty-eight full term infants supplemented with daily 400 I.U vitamin D for 6-months after birth and group II included fifty-one full term infants not supplemented with vitamin D. History taking and clinical examination and other investigations needed for diagnosis of respiratory, GIT and urinary tract infections were addressed every visit for one year.
Results The incidences of infections totally were less common in infants supplemented with vitamin D than those not supplemented (p-value = 0.01). Otitis media, bronchiolitis, pneumonia and gastroenteritis (p-value = 0.003, 0.001, 0.001and 0.01 respectively) were less common in them. There were no significant differences as regards urinary tract infections between the tow groups (p=0.3). significant negative correlations between respiratory and GIT infections and the maternal vitamin D levels were present.
Conclusions Vitamin D supplementation decreased the incidence of infections especially respiratory and GIT infections. Maternal vitamin D levels correlated negatively with the incidence of infections.