Introduction Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute self-limited vasculitis that can become fatal if left untreated. The aim of this study was to identify the risk factors associated with the development of coronary artery lesions (CAL) in pediatric patients with KD.
Methods We performed a retrospective chart review of pediatric patients diagnosed with KD who were admitted to King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah between January 2001 and December 2011. Descriptive statistics was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences.
Results Forty-four patients were diagnosed with KD. There were 27 (61.4%) boys and 17 (38.6%) girls. The mean age of the patients was 26.7 months (range 1.5–108 months). Twenty-three patients (52.3%) had complete Kawasaki, while 21 (47.7%) had incomplete KD. CAL were found in 16 patients (61.5%) with incomplete KD and in 10 (38.5%) with complete Kawasaki (p=0.05). CAL were more frequent in males (p=0.045), in the 1–5 year age group (p=0.045), in children with fever of more than 5 days (p=0.01) and in children who received intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) 10 days after the onset of fever (p=0.03). There was no significant relationship between CAL and nationality and other clinical systemic manifistation. There was no relationship between laboratory findings and the development of CAL before and after IVIG administration.
Conclusion CAL are more frequent in patients with incomplete KD. Risk factors for CAL are age between 1–5 years, male gender, and fever of >5 days duration. Early administration of IVIG reduces the frequency of CAL in patients with KD.