Background and Aims To investigate the effect of probiotics on colonization of resistant organisms in preterm infants receiving antibiotics.
Methods This study comprised of preterm infants who were born < 36 weeks and received antibiotic treatment or prophylaxis. Preterm infants were divided into two groups according to receiving probiotic (Lactobacillus reuteri). Stool culture and nasal swab culture were taken to determine colonization.
Results In the group receiving probiotics, mostly colonizing the stool cultures bacteries were Klebsiella spp, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp., Enterobacteriae spp., Staphylococcus spp. respectively, and in the group not receiving probiotic mostly colonizing the stool cultures bacteries were Klebsiella spp, Enterococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Enterobacteriae spp. respectively. When probiotic receiving group compared was with not receiving group, proliferation rate of stool cultures was higher in probiotic group. In the groups receiving and not receiving probiotic, proliferation of the nose cultures were similar. Increase in the proliferation rates of weekly stool cultures in probiotic receiving group was statistically significant but there was no statistically difference in the proliferation rates of nose and other cultures that were taken weekly. There was no statistical difference in both groups in the development of resistant organisms.
Conclusions The use of probiotics in neonatal intensive care unit for premature infants who received treatment with antibiotics, did not prevent the colonization of pathogenic microorganisms.