Introduction During the last few decades, an increase in the incidence of type 1 diabetes (DT1) in children was reported in most parts of the word.
Aims Study the epidemiologic and clinical particularity of (DT1) in our patients.
Patients and methods From 2000 to 2011, children under 15 years with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus and drown from department of pediatrics in Sfax were ascertained retrospectively. Cases of neonatal diabetes were excluded. Patients were devised on 3 groups: group 1: less than 5 years (107 cases), group 2: 5–10 years (120 cases), group 3: 10–16 years (98 cases).
Results The incidence was 27 new cases/year (17–34 cases). There were 166 boys - 159 girls. Median age at diabetes onset was 7 years and 7months. Twenty three percent of the children had a familial history of diabetes type 1 significantly more frequent in group 1. Fifty two percent of all cases were diagnosed in the cold season. The age at introduction of cow milk in alimentation was less than 6 months in 54.4%. Cereals were introduced in alimentation at an age less than 3months in 12.3% of cases. Ketoacidosis revealed diabetes in 55.7% of cases, significantly more frequent in group 1 (66.3%), polyuria and polydipsia were more frequent in group 3 (98%). Hypoglycemia was more frequent in group 1.
Conclusion Significant advances have been made in the clinical care, epidemiologic studies have an important on-going role to investigate the complex causes.