Objective To determine the prevalence of Gestational diabetes, compare the maternal-neonatal complications among women with GDM and non-GDM pregnant women and investigate the risk factors associated with GDM.
Design Cohort study.
Setting Women’s Hospital.
Subjects and methods A representative sample of 1,608 women expressed their consent to study. Questionnaire covered variables related to socio-demographic factors, family history, medical history, maternal complications and neonatal outcome.
Results The prevalence of GDM in Qatar was 16.3%. Women with GDM were significantly higher in the age group of 35–45 years (45%; p=0.001). Family history of DM (31.7%; p<0.001), increased parity (55.3%; p=0.004) and obesity (59.2%; p<0.001) were determinants of GDM in pregnant women. Maternal complications like pregnancy induced hypertension (19.1% vs 10.3%; p<0.001), pre-clampsia (7.3% vs 3.8% p=0.012), antepartum hemorrhage (19.2% vs 14.6%; p=0.05) and Caesarean (27.9% vs 12.4%; p<0.001) were significantly higher in GDM women. Neonates were at increased risk of preterm birth (12.6% vs 8.3%; p=0.03), macrosomia (10.3% vs 5.9%; p=0.01) and birth trauma (8% vs 3%; p<0.001). Advanced age group (p=0.001), obesity (P<0.001), Family history of DM (P<0.001) Macrosomia (p=0.05), Antepartum hemorrhage (p=0.001), Caesarean (p<0.001) were the significant associated factors for GDM.
Conclusion The GD was higher in women and they were at increased risk of developing maternal and neonatal complications. The advanced maternal age, family history of diabetes, macrosomia, obesity and caesarean delivery were the main significant associated risk factors for GDM.