Backgroud and aims: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is one of the most important chronic complications of premature birth. Although long term effects of BPD are more commonly known by the well-defined pulmonary consequences, cardiovascular sequelae related to BPD have also been reported. In the post-surfactant era data on the cardiovascular changes in new BPD patients is limited. In this study we aimed to investigate the role of myocardial tissue Doppler echocardiography in detecting cardiac pathology in preschool BPD patients and to find out possible risk factors related to cardiovascular sequela.
Methods Prematurely born children with BPD (N=21, 4 severe BPD, 3 moderate BPD and 14 mild BPD) and without BPD (N=20) at 2 to 4 years of age were enrolled to the study. Conventional and myocardial tissue Doppler echocardiography studies were performed.
Results In conventional echocardiography; right ventricular fractional shortening, tricuspid E/A ratio, mitral late diastolic inflow velocity and pulmonary acceleration time were decreased; mitral E/A ratio, left and right ventricular myocardial performance indexes were increased in BPD group compared to controls. In myocardial tissue Doppler measurements; tricuspid annulus E′/A′ratio was decreased and interventricular septum systolic velocity was increased in BPD group. Low birth weight, disease severity and postnatal cumulative steroid dosage were related with echocardiographic changes.
Conclusion BPD affects global cardiac performances up to 2 to 4 year of age with regard to birth weight, disease severity and cumulative steroid dosage. Myocardial tissue Doppler examination did not have additional value to conventional echocardiography in demonstration of these changes.