Objectives The research involved tracing some causality relationships among acute bronchiolitis, post-bronchiolitis recurrent wheezing and/or the atopic field.
Material and method The study group was made up of 118 cases of acute bronchiolitis in the children aged 0–2 years, admitted to the 2nd Pediatric Clinic in Craiova, in 2011. Traceable parameters: demographic (sex ratio, age, gestational age, birth weight, socio-economic environment), risk factors (history of pulmonary/heart disease, previous to bronchiolitis onset, prematurity), personal or/and family history of atopy, nutritional state, clinical and radiologic aspects, evolution under treatment, period of hospitalization.
Results Acute bronchiolitis prevalence was of 5%. Most cases were registered in the 6 to 12 months age group (43.2%), males (69.5%), in rural areas (56%), and during cold, wet season (70.2%). 63.6% of the cases had low birth weight. Dystrophy was present in 15.2%, carential rickets 46.7%, carential anemia 63.5% of the cases. 28% of the cases developed recurrent episodes of wheezing associated with lower respiratory tract infections. Radiologic images of pulmonary condensation were present in 77% cases with severe bronchiolitis. Severe bronchiolitis form was associated to a hospitalization period of 7–14 days. The atopic aspect was noticed in 9.3% of the cases. Children with atopy history had a longer period of symptoms and more days of hospitalization as compared to the ones without atopy antecedents.
Conclusions Cigarette smoke exposure, carential rickets, dystrophy, low birth weight, atopy association, all represented risk factors which significantly contributed to the appearance of post-bronchiolitis recurrent wheezing in infants and young children.