Introduction Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS)is a disorder on a defect in the apoptosis of lymphocytes with linfoproliferation and immune dysregulation. Type Ib, defined by mutation in the gene that encodes the protein FAS-ligand, is a rare entity.
Case report A 9-month-old male infant was referred because a failure to thrive and abdominal distention. Physical examination showed pallor, signs of severe malnutrition, axillary and inguinal lymph nodes, hepatomegaly and giant splenomegaly. Family background: parents, cousins of Moroccan origin, brother died at the age of 4when he was under study for a giant visceromegaly. Complementary tests highlighted severe anemia (Hb 7.30 g/dl) and thrombocytopenia (platelets 76000/mm3), paravertebral lymphoid proliferation of 4 cm, elevation of IL10, soluble CD25, 28% T lymphocytes double negative (CD4 - and CD8-) in peripheral blood and cell culture with defect of apoptosis in one of the samples. The genetic study identified the mutation of the gene TNFSF6 which encodes FAS-ligand-protein. After the diagnosis of ALPS type Ib, treatment with rapamycin was started at doses of 2 mg/m2 diary. An optimal evolution was observed, with a reduction of visceromegaly size after 30 months of treatment, without adverse events by the time.
Conclusion We emphasize the importance of the suspicion of this entity in children with chronic visceromegaly, especially with family history. Despite the few existing data on treatment with rapamycin for this disease and children in general, we have seen an appropriate response and a good tolerance in this patient.