Background The numerous adverse effects of Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) on the non-smoking public have being evidenced through decades of research. This does not only affect adults but children. ETS effects on children have shown to be grave as it worsens asthma conditions, increases pneumonia cases and causes Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS).
Methods Most residents in all 44 Local Government Areas (LGAs) in Kano State of Northern Nigeria took part in a population-based large-scale cross-sectional survey in Kano state from 2007–2010. Demographic information coupled with socioeconomic status, smoking status and house environment of each household member, was collected from participants.
Results Out of a total of 528, 800 people resident in 102,334 homes indentified in the survey areas and visible/present as at the time of the study, 52,888 (10%) were children aged 7 years and below. While the prevalence of ETS exposure on children was 81%, the prevalence of reported pneumonia cases was 3.5%. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that exposure to ETS was independently associated with reports of pneumonia cases (adjusted odds ratio 1.55, 95% CI 1.25 to 1.92). The prevalence of tobacco smoking was higher among men than women (63.5% vs 44.1%). It is estimated that 32.7% of childhood pneumonia in the northern region of Nigeria is attributable to ETS.
Conclusions Attention should be given to reduction to children’s exposure to ETS not only in Nigeria but in all affected areas mostly all parts of the world.