Background and Aims Fetal macrosomia is associated with significant perinatal and long-term complications, including higher risk for later development of insulin resistance/metabolic syndrome. Besides regulating whole body metabolism, adipocytokines have been implicated in fetal growth. We aimed to investigate circulating concentrations of omentin-1 and vaspin (important adipocytokines, regulating glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity) in fetal samples from large-for-gestational-age-(LGA) and appropriate-for-gestational-age-(AGA) pregnancies and correlate them with several maternal and fetal anthropometric/clinical variables.
Methods Sixty five LGA (14 born from mothers presenting with gestational diabetes mellitus and 51 born from non-diabetic mothers) and 35 AGA singleton full-term infants were recruited. Determination of cord blood omentin-1 and vaspin concentrations was performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
Results Cord blood omentin-1 concentrations were significantly higher in LGA compared to AGA neonates (b=0.119, p=0.002, SE 0.036), after controlling for confounding factors. Similarly, cord blood vaspin concentrations were significantly elevated in LGA cases, compared to AGA controls (p=0.011). Finally, cord blood omentin-1 concentrations were lower in cases of vaginal delivery (b=0.072, p=0.020, SE 0.030), after controlling for group.
Conclusions Higher concentrations of omentin-1 and vaspin in LGA compared to AGA fetuses, probably suggest the potential role of both adipocykines in intrauterine growth, as well as their possible implication in the metabolic disturbances characterizing fetal macrosomia both in the short- and long-term. Vaginal delivery-associated inflammation may account for the lower cord blood omentin-1 concentrations.