Objective To examine the incidence of sudden unexplained death in children 1–4 years old (SUDC) in Ireland and to compare the epidemiological profile of SUDC with that of SIDS.
Design All cases of sudden unexplained death in children <5 years in Ireland between 1994 and 2008 were reviewed. Epidemiological information obtained from parental questionnaires and post-mortem reports was examined, and data on cases ≥52 weeks compared with cases <52 weeks.
Results SUDC accounted for 5% (n=44) of deaths in children aged 1–4 years during 1994–2008. During this period, the SIDS rate dropped from 0.71 to 0.34 per 1000 live births, while the SUDC rate increased from 0.08 to 0.18 deaths per 10 000 population aged 1–4 years. The median age of SUDC cases was 71.5 weeks, and the male/female ratio was 1.3:1. All died during a sleep period, 71% between 10pm and 8am, and more than two-thirds were found prone. Fewest cases occurred during July–September (11%), and a greater proportion occurred at weekends (55%). 52% (17/33) had symptoms (any) in the 48 h before death, and 35% (11/31) visited their general practitioner because of illness in the week preceding death. SUDC differed from SIDS in prevalence of maternal smoking (38% vs 72%, p<0.001), bed-sharing (17% vs 49%, p<0.001), and whether found prone (72% vs 23%, p<0.001).
Conclusion While SUDC shares some characteristics with SIDS, there are also some important differences. Further data collection will help determine whether SIDS and SUDC represent the same pathophysiological entity. Standardisation of protocols for investigating sudden deaths is urgently required for accurate diagnosis of cases.
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Funding The Department of Health and Children, Ireland provided funding for this research.
Competing interests None.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.