Dark chocolate for children's blood pressure: randomised trial
- Eunice K Chan1,
- Jon Quach2,
- Fiona K Mensah2,3,4,
- Valerie Sung1,2,4,
- Michael Cheung2,4,5,
- Melissa Wake1,2,4
- 1Centre for Community Child Health, Royal Children's Hospital, Parkville, Victoria, Australia
- 2Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Parkville, Victoria, Australia
- 3Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics Unit, Royal Children's Hospital, Parkville, Victoria, Australia
- 4Department of Paediatrics, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia
- 5Cardiology Department, Royal Children's Hospital, Parkville, Australia
- Correspondence to Melissa Wake, Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Centre for Community Child Health, Royal Children's Hospital, Flemington Rd, Parkville, Victoria 3052, Australia;
Contributors The project was conceived, initiated and supervised by MW. EC led the project and the paper, supervised by MW, with all authors providing critical contributions to reviewing, editing and approving its final version. JQ and EC led the fieldwork. FM conducted the analyses. MW is the guarantor and accepts full responsibility for the conduct of the study, had access to the data, and controlled the decision to publish.
- Received 10 November 2011
- Accepted 2 April 2012
- Published Online First 9 June 2012
Background Higher adult blood pressure, even without hypertension, predicts cardiovascular outcomes, and is predicted by childhood blood pressure. Regular dark chocolate intake lowers blood pressure in adults, but effects in children are unknown.
Aim To examine the feasibility of school-based provision of dark chocolate and its short-term efficacy in reducing mean group blood pressure.
Methods 194 children (aged 10–12 years) were randomised by class to intervention (7 g dark chocolate daily for 7 weeks, n=124) or control (n=70) groups; 98% and 93% provided baseline and follow-up measurements, respectively.
Results Intervention and control students had similar systolic (mean difference 1.7 mm Hg, 95% CI −0.6 to 4.1) and diastolic (−1.2 mm Hg, 95% CI −3.6 to 1.3) blood pressure, anthropometry and well-being at outcome.
Conclusion Results show that providing dark chocolate is feasible and acceptable in the school setting. For a definitive trial, the authors recommend a larger sample, endovascular function measures, and consideration of higher antioxidant ‘dose’ by virtue of duration and/or content.
Competing interests None.
Ethics approval Obtained from the Human Research Ethics Committee at the Royal Children's Hospital in Melbourne, Australia (HREC 30049).
Funding “ChocHealth for Kids!” was funded by The Centre for Community Child Health and the Murdoch Childrens Research Institute (MCRI). MCRI research is supported by the Victorian Government's Operational Infrastructure Program. Drs Mensah, Quach and Wake are all supported by the Australian National Health & Medical Research Council.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.