Combination antiretroviral treatment (cART) has been highly successful in preventing mother to child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and in reducing mortality and morbidity in HIV infected children. cART is now recommended for all HIV infected infants and selected older children. As these children will need to take cART until adulthood, the aim is to use cART with low risks of virological failure, resistance and toxicity. Since increasing numbers of antiretroviral drugs are becoming available for children, ongoing studies are needed to determine the correct doses for children, to improve adherence and to assess potential toxicity and drug interactions (such as between ritonavir and inhaled fluticasone).
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Competing interests: AR is a committee member for CHIPS which has received financial support from Bristol-Myers Squibb, Boehringer Ingelheim, GlaxoSmithKline, Roche, Gilead Sciences, Inc and Abbott. AR has helped organise educational meetings and analysed CHIPS data using unrestricted grants from Gilead Sciences, Inc.