Aim To assess the prevalence of osteomalacia and its morbidity among sickle cell disease (SCD) patients treated in our institution.
Background Bone disease is an increasingly recognised serious cause of morbidity in young adults with SCD. Its aetiology is multifactoral, culminating in increased bone resorption and remodelling due to the complications of the disease itself and other risk factors; low baseline haemoglobin, low vitamin D, low serum phosphate level, iron overload and nutritional deficiency. The lack of early detection and treatment can lead to multiple problems, bone and joint complications, vaso-occlusive crisis, cerebrovascular accident and pulmonary hypertension.
Methods 203 SCD patients were enrolled in the study, patient ages ranges from 1 to 18 years. These patients were treated in King Abdulaziz University Hospital (KAUH), Jeddah, KSA, and were assessed clinically. Blood samples were obtained for the determination of biochemical profiles, parathyroid hormone, 25 OH vitamin D3. Bone change was assessed by radiological bone age. Bone formation markers (phosphate) were analysed for all patients who were referred for treatment.
Results The study indicates a high prevalence of D hypovitaminosis.
Conclusion Early detection and treatment can prevent bone complications and can eliminate the bone morbidity of SCD.