Objective Aim of the present study was to examine whether polymorphisms in the gene encoding adiponectin interact with cereal intake to affect serum adiponectin and glucose levels and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in a population sample of healthy school-aged children.
Methods The Gene-Diet Attica Investigation (GENDAI) is a school-based cross-sectional study that evaluates the contributions and pivotal interactions of genetic, dietary and physical activity variables on children’s overweight. Children attending fifth and sixth grade (11.2±0.7 yrs) participated in the study. High quality genotyping data, anthropometric and biochemical data, including adiponectin, were available. Cereal intake (servings/day) was assessed using two 24 hour dietary recalls. Low energy reporters were excluded from the analyses.
Results The selected SNP was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (frequency of minor allele = 0.100). No significant differences were observed in anthropometric indices (body mass index, circumferences), serum glucose and adiponectin levels and HOMA-IR between -11391G/A genotypes (GG vs. GA+AA), even after adjustment for potential confounders covariates (age, sex, gender, BMI, waist circumference, physical activity, and mean energy intake). In the multivariate model, interaction of -11391G/A genotype and refined cereal intake was significantly associated with fasting glucose levels after adjustments for the aforementioned covariates (standardized beta = −0.241; p for interaction = 0.035). Similar trend has also been detected for HOMA-IR (p for interaction = 0.094), but for adiponectin levels.
Conclusions Our data indicate that refined cereal intake may interact with -11391G/A polymorphism in predicting indices of glycemic control in children.
Acknowledgments: This work was partly supported by Coca-Cola, Hellas.