Objective Age- and sex-matched case-control study, aiming to identify correlations of body composition, nutritional status and diabetes control of children and adolescents with type 1 Diabetes Mellitus(T1DM),compared to controls.
Methods 24 children and adolescents with T1DM aged 4–16 years old and equal age- and sex-paired controls, participated in the study. Body fat (BF) was estimated with Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis. Diabetes control was evaluated through glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Dietary intake was recorded for 3 days. Paired t-test and Pearson’s correlation was used for statistical analysis.
Results Body mass index (BMI) was higher in T1DM group and %BF lower, though not significant. Free Mass Index (FMI) and weight-for-age (WAZ) was lower in controls (p<0.001, p<0.01). Poor glycemic control and higher levels of HbA1c were correlated to low BMI (p<0.02), low BMI-z-score (p<0.004), good height-for-age (p<0.05) and good WAZ (p<0.009). The prevalence of obesity in the diabetic group was 12.5% (n = 3) compared to whereas in the controls group the prevalence of underweight was 8.3% (n = 2) (p<0.012). Both groups exhibited similarities in the energy and nutrient intake, with a consumption of a diet high in fats and proteins, on behalf of carbohydrates. The T1DM group presented an inadequate intake of vitamin D but a higher consumption of antioxidant vitamins compared to controls. No correlations were observed between HbA1c and nutrient intake.
Conclusions Diabetic individuals failed to adhere to the macronutrient recommendations for diabetes and presented a higher prevalence of obesity and FMI compared to controls, although they all followed similar diet patterns.