Objective As part of a study regarding rural and urban children’s psychosocial and developmental well-being, we evaluated symptoms of developmental disabilities, such as ADHD, according to DSM-IV criteria.
Methods 593 children in primary education and 1673 in secondary education were evaluated with a specially designed parent-completed questionnaire for psychosocial and developmental problems.
Results Children in primary education reported a prevalence of 7.7% of ADHD symptoms (9.2% rural, 7% urban areas) however area was not statistically significant (Pearson Chi-square 0.149). There is a relationship when the Pearson Chi Square asymptotic significant value is less than 0.05. Gender was statistically relevant (Pearson Chi-square 0.000), with 70.7% of the children matching the ADHD criteria being boys and girls 29.3%. Grade was statistically significant (Pearson Chi-square 0.000) and surprisingly correlated positively with excellent and good academic performance (45.7% and 51.4% respectively) as only 2.9% of the children with ADHD symptoms displayed poor academic grades. Adolescents in secondary education exhibited similar results with total prevalence 8%. Rural areas reported 8.1% and 7.7% in cities but area was not statistically significant (Pearson Chi-square 0.491). Gender was also statistically relevant (Pearson Chi-square 0.000), with 60.8% males and 39.2% females. Grade was statistically significant (Pearson Chi-square 0.000), however it was correlated with excellent academic performance only at 19.6%, good 62.6% and 17.8% with poor academic performance.
Conclusion ADHD prevalence was similar to international studies and was found to correlate with gender and grade but not with area. Further study is needed to establish all the possible correlates in Cyprus.