Objective To determine the prevalence of maternal colonization by GBS, evaluating the obstetrical and perinatal outcomes in low and high risk pregnant women from Porto Alegre, Brazil.
Methods Prospective cohort study with 299 pregnant women. Samples for analysis of GBS were obtained at 35th to 37th weeks of gestation by vaginal and anal swabs cutlivated in Todd Hewitt Broth with gentamicin and nalidíxic acid. N confirming the presence of GBS colonization, the patients received chemoprophylaxis at the time of labor. The study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the Institution. Statistical analysis were calcutated obtaining the mean and 95% CI, and analysed by chi-square, significance was at p<0.05.
Results The prevalence of colonization among the patients was 11.4% (95% CI 7.8 to 15.0%). We did not identify difference in term of prevalence of colonization for the several risk factors analysed. Newborns of mothers colonized showed an index of the first minute Apgar significantly lower than that of mothers not colonized (p = 0.003), as well as higher frequency of negative outcomes, such as the need for ICU admission and neonatal sepsis (p = 0.02).
Conclusions The results of this study confirms the need for universal screening and assessment of the rates of GBS resistance to antibiotics in pregnant women.
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