Aim To investigate the prevalence and risk factors for deltoid fibrosis (DF) in 3 communes in Vietnam.
Material and Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out from January 2007 to April 2007 including 3,218 people aged 1 to 60 years old in 3 communes.
Results There were 478 people who suffered from DF. Among those patients, 447 ranged in age from 6 to 20 years (93.51%).
DF was correlated with intradeltoid injection of antibiotic ⩾2 episodes and DF with OR = 1.6 (p<0.05), especially when the antibiotic injection was given when patients were ⩽5 years old. Family history of DF was also a risk factor with OR = 0.2 (p<0.001).
There was no correlation between vaccine injection and DF (OR = 0.5, p>0.05).
Conclusion The prevalence of DF in 3 communes in Vietnam was 14.9%. The highest prevalence was in people from 6–20 years old. Antibiotic injection in the Deltoid muscle was a risk factor.