Unique to the neonate the retinopathy of prematurity has a complex etiology and multiple risk factors: low gestational age, sepsis, hypoxemia, hypercapnia, prolonged oxygenotherapy and many others.
Objective Evaluation of the risk factors for retinopathy of prematurity, in very low birth weight infants that are included in the neonatal screening program.
Methods This was a retrospective study done on 85 preterm newborns managed by The Neonatology Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinic I in Cluj over a period of 15 months. Prenatal factors were assessed: birth, perinatal pathology, therapy received, incidence of retinopathy and the necessity for laser therapy. Statistics used EpiInfo6.
Results The group was composed of 85 newborns with gestational age of 30.01±2.18 weeks and birth weight of 1240.19±347.41 g. The incidence of retinopathy of prematurity is highly correlated with the gestational age and with birth weight. Apgar score value at 1 and 5 minutes was significantly correlated with incidence of retinopathy. We did not find a significant correlation between duration of mechanical ventilation and retinopathy but the correlation is obvious with the duration of oxygenotherapy (p = 0.005) and FiO2 (p = 0.005). From prenatal factors we distinguished a high percentage (29.5%) of unfollowed pregnancies in newborns that developed retinopathy. Incidence of retinopathy was 39.02% and the necessity for laser therapy was imposed in 14.8%.
Conclusions Incidence of retinopathy: 39.02%.
Risk factors for retinopathy of prematurity were: unfollowed pregnancies, Apgar score at 1 and 5 minutes, duration of oxygenotherapy and FiO2 applied.