Article Text

NEONATAL ABSTINENCE SYNDROME IN NEONATES OF MOTHERS WHO HAVE TAKEN OPIOIDS DURING PRENANCY IN NICU
  1. I Loukatou1,
  2. E Polykarpou1,
  3. Ge C Papadopoulos1,
  4. E Papathoma1
  1. 1NICU, Alexandra Maternity Hospital, Athens, Attika, Greece

Abstract

Introduction Neonates born to mothers addicted to opioids are at risk for drug withdrawal.

Material We reviewed 21 patient records of 20 opioid addicted mothers who delivered in Alexandra hospital during August 2005–April 2008. Two opioid types were used in our study: heroin and methadone. Babies were evaluated according Finnegan score.

Purpose To describe:

  • Symptoms and their frequency.

  • Time of onset and duration.

  • Appearance of congenital malformations.

Results 60% (12/20) of the mothers used heroin, 35% (7/20) methadone and 10% both opioids during pregnancy. 80.5% (17/21) of the neonates developed symptoms while 19% (4/21) were asympomatic. From the symptomatic neonates, 35.29% (6/27) had mild symptoms and were not treated. 29.41% (5/17) manifested symptoms during the first day, 58.82% (10/17) during the second day and 11.76% (2/17) within the second to tenth day. The duration of symptoms was <5 days for 29.41% (5/17), 35.29% (6/17): 7–10 days, 35.29% (6/17): >10 days. Symptoms appeared with the following frequency: 94.11% (16/17) irritability, 94.11% (16/17) jitteriness, 47.05% (8/17) diarrhea, 41.7% (7/17) hypertonia, 17.64% (3/17) feeding problems, 11.7% (2/17) hyperthermia, 11.7% (2/17) tachypnoea, 5.8% (1/17) high-pitched cry. There were no babies with seizures. In addition, 4.76% (1/21) developed cryptorchidism, 4.76% (1/21) dislocated hips, 4.76% (1/21) club foot.

Conclusions Irritability and jitteriness were the most frequent and stable symptoms. In both heroin and methadone usage, symptoms appeared mostly during the second day of life and had a duration >7 days. In addition opioid abuse during pregnancy does not seem to result in major congenital abnormalities.

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