Introduction Hyperglycemia is the most common disorder of glucose metabolism in low birth weigh neonates hospitalized in the NICU. If undiagnosed and untreated it progresses to osmotic diuresis and dehydration and its complications.
Methods In this retrospective survey, we studied 360 neonates hospitalized in the NICU. We considered high glucose levels more than 145 mg/dl. We also studied the correlation between hyperglycemia and risk factors such as birth weight, gestational age, Apgar score, medications (such as methylxantines, corticosteroids), Hypoxia and septicemia.
Results The prevalence of hyperglycemia was 13.5% It was 61.7% in males and 38.2% in females 74.5% of hyperglycemic neonates were preterm, 23.4% were term and 2.1% post term.
The maximum level of BS was 466 mg/dl. The minimum weight of neonates was 650 gr and maximum weight was 4180 gr. 10.6% of neonates had septicemia, 12.8% were IUGR, 31.9% had hypoxia, 23.4% were meconium stained, 23.4% had received aminophylline, 10.6% had received hydrocortisone, 8.5% of neonates had low apgar score. There were no cases of diabetes mellitus due to its rarity.
Hyperglycemia in 85.1% of neonates were controlled by tapering of glucose administration. 10.6% of neonates died due to other reasons and they were not dehydrated. There was no need to use insulin.
Discussion Neonatal hyperglycemia has correlation with risk factors such as low birth weight, prematurity, IUGR, intake of parentral glucose, hypoxia, sepsis and medications. There is a need to lower the glucose intake, and, rarely, administration of insulin along with treatment of underlying disorders.
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