Objective Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common cause of childhood respiratory infection resulting in significant debilitation and mortality. Recently, several cases of encephalopathy and neurological complications with RSV infection have been reported and the correlation between infection in early infants followed by a convulsive tendency has also been investigated. However, these reports were limited and its pathophysiology was not fully understood. We have already established a highly sensitive and specific assay for the detection of the RSV genome. In this study we investigated the pathophysiology in five cases with RSV infection -associated seizures.
Methods We described four cases of respiratory syncytial virus infection with seizures and detected the virus genome in their cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by the reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) method. No case was immunized by Palivizumab.
Results Some of the levels of IL-6 in CSF were high. Some of the cases showed abnormalities in magnetic resonance image (MRI) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT).
Conclusions These data would support the fact that neurological involvement may be commonly caused by a direct invasion.