Article Text

IMMUNOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF ACUTE VIRAL HEPATITIS B IN CHILDREN
  1. J I Bajora1,
  2. L V Fedchuk2
  1. 1Clinical Immunology Department, Odessa State Medical University, Odessa, Ukraine
  2. 2Clinical Immunology Department, Odessa State Medical University, City Children’s Isolation Hospital, Odessa, Ukraine

Abstract

Last year the tendency of growth of morbidity as a result of acute viral hepatites persisted. Morbidity in Ukraine is in 5–20 times higher than in the USA and the countries of Western Europe. The prognosis and clinical course of a HBV infection are related to to the state of immune system, the degree of infection and the virus virulence.

According to statistics for each third inhabitant of Ukraine there is a secondary immunodeficiency. Its development is influenced by radiation pollution (Chernobyl), psychoemotional stresses, inadequate treatment and irrational fear.

We observed children with the acute viral hepatitis B in a city isolation hospital (Odessa).

In children of the first year of life HBV is extremely severe. The lethality at this age reaches 13.8%.

The connection between HBV and HIV infection is significant as their is similarity of pathway and frequent correlation. Odessa has by quantity one of the highest numbers of HIV infected people in Ukraine.

It was revealed that an immune homeostasis disorder occurs from the first days of disease and is manifested by reduction of the quantity of T-lymphocytes, with a change in the immunoregulatory populations of T-helpers and T-suppressors. Because of β-cell stimulation there is an activation of B-lymphocytes, due to the production of antibodies, that results in the destruction of hepatocytes.

HBV infection is an autoimmune and autoaggressive disease, therefore an integral part of medication and the rehabilitation of patients is a stabilization of immune homeostasis.

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