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The genetic contribution to congenital club foot remains uncertain. The first twin study on club foot, reported in 1939, showed a pairwise concordance rate of 33% for monozygotic twins and 3% for dizygotic, same-sex twins. That study has been criticised because it was not population based. In 2002 (
) a questionnaire was sent to all 46 418 twins born in Denmark between 1931 and 1982. Ninety-four replied “yes” to a question asking whether they had been born with club foot. Pairwise concordance rates were 2/12 (17%) for monozygotic twins and 2/22 (9%) for dizygotic, same-sex twins. For all dizygotic twins the rate was 5%. It is concluded that genetic factors play a part in club foot but non-genetic factors must be more important.
Adolescents around the world are using tobacco and those who are not current users may be susceptible to taking up the habit within a short time. The Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) was initiated by the WHO and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Data have been reported (
) from 395 survey sites in 131 countries plus the Gaza Strip and the West Bank, about tobacco use among schoolchildren aged 13–15 years during the period 1999–2005. In all, 17% of children (20% of boys and 14% of girls) reported current use of tobacco. Around the world more children (11%) used other forms of tobacco (chewing tobacco, snuff, dip, cigars, pipe, bidis, waterpipe, or betel nut with …