Twenty year surveillance of invasive pneumococcal disease in Nottingham: serogroups responsible and implications for immunisation
- 1Department of Medical Microbiology, Queen’s Medical Centre, University Hospital, Nottingham NG7 2UH, UK
- 2Academic Division of Child Health, Queen’s Medical Centre, University Hospital, Nottingham NG7 2UH, UK
- Correspondence to:
Dr R C B Slack
Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Queen’s Medical Centre, University Hospital, Nottingham NG7 2UH, UK;
- Accepted 25 November 2003
Aims: To evaluate the incidence, spectrum of clinical manifestations, and outcome of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in children. To determine the major serogroups of Streptococcus pneumoniae responsible for invasive disease and the potential coverage by the new pneumococcal conjugate vaccines.
Methods: Analysis of prospectively recorded information of all children admitted to two teaching hospitals in Nottingham with IPD between January 1980 and December 1999.
Results: A total of 266 episodes of IPD in children were identified; 103 (39%) were aged <1 year and 160 (60%) <2 years. Major clinical presentations were meningitis in 86 (32%), pneumonia in 82 (31%), and bacteraemia without an obvious focus in 80 (30%). The age specific mean annual incidence rates of IPD overall among children aged <1, <2, and <5 years were 47.1, 37.8, and 20 per 100 000 population, respectively. Mortality rates for children with meningitis and non-meningitic infection were 20% and 7%, respectively. Neurological sequelae following meningitis were documented in 16 (26%) of the 61 survivors assessed. The potential coverage rates in children between the ages of 6 months and 5 years are 84% by the 7-valent, 91% by the 9-valent, and 95% by the 11-valent conjugate vaccines.
Conclusion: This study indicates that inclusion of a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in the primary immunisation programme in the UK would have a considerable effect on the mortality and morbidity associated with IPD.
- CSF, cerebrospinal fluid
- Hib, Haemophilus influenzae type b
- IPD, invasive pneumococcal disease
- MIC, minimal inhibitory concentration
- PCV, pneumococcal conjugate vaccine