A case of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) in monozygotic twin sisters was detected at 3 months of age with neutropenia in one twin and a normal differential count in the other. The neutropenic twin, suffering from severe skin ulcers, was successfully treated with granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF). Discordant occurrence of neutropenia in identical twins shows that there may be a non-genetic cause for the neutropenia in SCID. Suppression of myelopoiesis was probably induced by activated maternal T cells. The neutropenia in this case may thus be classified as SCID associated neutropenia, as opposed to reticular dysgenesis, in which the neutropenia is G-CSF refractory and is most probably caused by a genetic stem cell defect. A response to G-CSF in a neutropenic child with SCID can be clinically beneficial and might help to distinguish between G-CSF unresponsive reticular dysgenesis and G-CSF responsive SCID associated neutropenia.