A previously unrecognised and distinctive pattern of severe brain injury in extreme preterm neonates was observed recently. Fifteen neonates of birth weight 600-1270 g and gestation of 24-32 weeks showed relatively late development on cerebral ultrasound scan of extensive dense and cystic lesions involving the periphery of the brain. The extent of the changes was confirmed at postmortem examination in 11 babies. These changes have been called encephaloclastic porencephaly. The population of babies in whom this has occurred and their clinical outcome has been reviewed, with comparison between the evolution of the ultrasound changes and pathological findings at postmortem examination.