Juvenile (retention) polyps are usually solitary lesions in the colorectum but may be multiple in juvenile polyposis. The association between juvenile polyps and colorectal neoplasia is controversial. We present three patients with juvenile polyposis who had colorectal adenomas or adenomatous epithelium in juvenile polyps at ages 3, 4, and 7 years. In a retrospective study of 57 additional patients with one or more juvenile polyps, 10 patients (18%) had colorectal neoplasia including three with adenocarcinoma, two with tubular adenoma, and six with adenomatous epithelium in a juvenile polyp (one had both adenomatous epithelium and an adenocarcinoma). Nine of these 10 patients had juvenile polyposis defined by the presence of at least three juvenile polyps; and eight of the nine had a family history of juvenile polyps. Colorectal neoplasia occurred at young age (mean (SEM) 37 (5) years). Our findings suggest that patients with juvenile polyps who have three or more juvenile polyps or a family history of juvenile polyps should undergo surveillance for colorectal neoplasia.
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