The clinical data of 18 patients with X linked hypophosphataemia were analysed retrospectively. The height data were expressed as SD scores. There was no difference in the final height of patients treated with vitamin D (or 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D) and phosphate for at least two years (n = 12) and that of 16 hypophosphataemic family members who had never been treated. The mean final SD score (-2.07) of treated patients, however, was significantly higher than the value before treatment (-2.79), which indicated an average absolute height gain of 4-4.5 cm compared with the expected height values. Six of the treated patients developed ultrasonographically detectable nephrocalcinosis with normal renal function. The daily phosphate intake and excretion of patients with nephrocalcinosis was significantly higher than that of patients with normal renal morphology. There was no difference in the doses of vitamin D between the two groups. The average urinary calcium:creatinine ratio of the two groups was similar to and below the hypercalciuric 0.6 mmol:mmol limit. The group with nephrocalcinosis, however, had a higher incidence of hypercalciuric episodes than the group without nephrocalcinosis (12 in 130 observations compared with six in 334 observations, respectively). The benefits and risks of treatment of patients with X linked hypophosphataemia must be further evaluated. The high dose of phosphate seems to be an important factor in the development of nephrocalcinosis in this group of patients.
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