Echocardiography was carried out in 31 neonates (group 1) born to diabetic mothers and 37 control infants (group 2) matched for weight and gestational age. The interventricular septum was significantly thicker in group 1 babies (mean (SD) 4.77 (1.4) mm) compared with those in group 2 (2.5 (0.7) mm); in eight it was more than 5 mm, but had regressed in six over a period of three months. There was no significant difference between the two groups in the left ventricular internal dimension, right ventricular outflow tract, or size of the left atrium or the aorta. The left ventricular mass was significantly greater in infants born to diabetic mothers. The left ventricular contractility (judged by the percentage of shortening of the internal dimension and the ejection fraction) was significantly greater in group 1. No evidence of left ventricular outflow obstruction was found on pulse Doppler echocardiography in group 1.
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