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Renal tubular proteinuria and microalbuminuria in diabetic patients.
  1. D M Gibb,
  2. P A Tomlinson,
  3. N R Dalton,
  4. C Turner,
  5. V Shah,
  6. T M Barratt
  1. Department of Paediatric Nephrology, Institute of Child Health, London.

    Abstract

    The urinary extraction of albumin, retinol binding protein, and N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase were studied in 60 children with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and in 45 normal children to find out whether the renal tubules played a part in causing the early increase in urinary excretion of albumin that occurs in diabetes mellitus. Two overnight urine samples were collected and the protein excretion measured and expressed as the geometric mean of the protein to creatinine ratio (urinary albumin:creatinine ratio, urinary retinol binding protein:creatinine ratio, and urinary N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase:creatinine ratio, respectively). The excretion of all three proteins was significantly higher in the diabetic children with 15 (25%) of urinary albumin:creatinine ratio, 16 (27%) of urinary retinol binding protein:creatinine ratio, and 43 (72%) of urinary N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase:creatinine ratio values being above the normal range. Significant correlations were observed between urinary albumin:creatinine ratio and urinary retinol binding protein:creatinine ratio, urinary albumin:creatinine ratio and urinary N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase:creatinine ratio, and urinary retinol binding protein:creatinine ratio and urinary N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase:creatinine ratio. There were also significant correlations between glycated haemoglobin 1c (HbA1c) and these proteins, especially N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase. No correlations were observed with the fractional excretion of sodium, flow rate of urine, glomerular filtration rate, or blood pressure. These data show that tubular abnormalities are present early in the course of insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and suggest that the early increase in urinary excretion of albumin may be at least partly tubular in origin, and that glycaemic control may influence this aspect of proximal tubular function.

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