Thirty one preterm neonates who had clinical, radiological, or bacteriological evidence of infection and who would normally have received gentamicin and penicillin were treated with latamoxef (Moxalactam) 100 mg/kg/day. All were examined prospectively for clinical improvement and possible side effects. Biochemical and haematological values were monitored and pharmacokinetic variables determined. Thirty babies improved during treatment; latamoxef was effective in eradicating the infecting organisms in 7 of 9, including three babies infected with Lancefield group B streptococci. High serum concentrations of latamoxef were achieved after either intravenous or intramuscular administration and accumulation did not occur. Treatment had no effect on renal or hepatic function nor did it result in increased serum values of non-protein bound bilirubin. Clotting studies, where performed, were normal and no babies had bloody stools. Two disulfiram-like reactions were recorded. Latamoxef proved a safe and efficacious alternative to gentamicin with penicillin in the initial treatment of neonates with clinical evidence of infection.
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