Immunological aspects of 40 northern Nigerian children with nephrotic syndrome of recent onset are reported. Eight our of 30 had hepatitis-associated antigen in their sera. Hypocomplementaemia was rare. Measurement of serum C3, C4, and ASOT was not of diagnostic value. Proteinuria selectivity index was poor in half of the patients, and appeared t o depend on the severity of the kidney lesion. Abnormal immunofluorescence of kidney glomeruli to immunoglobulins, complement, Plasmodium malariae, and Plasmodium falciparum was found in 26 of the 29 children. The pattern of immunofluorescence was chiefly granular and was confined to the glomeruli. IgM was predominant. It was concluded that immunological reaction is involved in the pathogenesis of nephrotic syndrome in northern Nigerian children.
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