A case of neonatal leukaemia of acute myeloid cell type was diagnosed at age 8 weeks and the patient died shortly afterwards with evidence of disseminated intravascular coagulation. An aneuploid malignant cell line 47, XY+C was found, in addition to the infant's normal constitutional karyotype. Eight other cases of congenital or neonatal leukaemia with aneuploid malignant cell lines are reviewed. C-trisomy is a commonly acquired chromosomal abnormality in a wide range of malignant and premalignant haematological disorders, and its possible significance in relation to leukaemogenesis in this case is discussed.
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